Exposure Science in the 21st Century

Exposure Science in the 21st Century Author Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century
ISBN-10 9780309264686
Release 2012-09-28
Pages 196
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From the use of personal products to our consumption of food, water, and air, people are exposed to a wide array of agents each day--many with the potential to affect health. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy investigates the contact of humans or other organisms with those agents (that is, chemical, physical, and biologic stressors) and their fate in living systems. The concept of exposure science has been instrumental in helping us understand how stressors affect human and ecosystem health, and in efforts to prevent or reduce contact with harmful stressors. In this way exposure science has played an integral role in many areas of environmental health, and can help meet growing needs in environmental regulation, urban and ecosystem planning, and disaster management. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy explains that there are increasing demands for exposure science information, for example to meet needs for data on the thousands of chemicals introduced into the market each year, and to better understand the health effects of prolonged low-level exposure to stressors. Recent advances in tools and technologies--including sensor systems, analytic methods, molecular technologies, computational tools, and bioinformatics--have provided the potential for more accurate and comprehensive exposure science data than ever before. This report also provides a roadmap to take advantage of the technologic innovations and strategic collaborations to move exposure science into the future.



Exposure Science

Exposure Science Author Paul Lioy
ISBN-10 9780124202382
Release 2014-02-11
Pages 116
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Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications provides a concise overview of the field of exposure science, from its origins in sanitation and occupational health, to its exciting involvement with emerging scientific concepts. Written by world-leading experts in the field of exposure science, this book provides all the basic understanding you need to employ the best tools and methods for measurement, analysis, and modeling of exposure. Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications is an invaluable introduction to exposure science for anyone working in the fields of environmental health, risk assessment, toxicology, or epidemiology. Focuses on and highlights the basic fundamentals, scientific goals, theories and tools of exposure science Examines the use of the exposome and eco-exposome concepts within the field of exposure science



Exposure Science Improves Risk Assessments of Air Pollutants

Exposure Science Improves Risk Assessments of Air Pollutants Author
ISBN-10 OCLC:676723888
Release 2009
Pages 2
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Exposure Science Improves Risk Assessments of Air Pollutants has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Exposure Science Improves Risk Assessments of Air Pollutants also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Exposure Science Improves Risk Assessments of Air Pollutants book for free.



Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105122660496
Release 2006
Pages
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Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology book for free.



Textbook of Children s Environmental Health

Textbook of Children s Environmental Health Author Philip J. Landrigan
ISBN-10 9780199336661
Release 2013-11-15
Pages 608
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Over the past four decades, the prevalence of autism, asthma, ADHD, obesity, diabetes, and birth defects have grown substantially among children around the world. Not coincidentally, more than 80,000 new chemicals have been developed and released into the global environment during this same period. Today the World Health Organization attributes 36% of all childhood deaths to environmental causes. Children's environmental health is a new and expanding discipline that studies the profound impact of chemical and environmental hazards on child health. Amid mounting evidence that children are exquisitely sensitive to their environment-and that exposure during their developmental "windows of susceptibility" can trigger cellular changes that lead to disease and disability in infancy, childhood, and across the life span-there is a compelling need for continued scientific study of the relationship between children's health and environment. The Textbook of Children's Environmental Health codifies the knowledge base and offers an authoritative and comprehensive guide to this important new field. Edited by two internationally recognized pioneers in the area, this volume presents up-to-date information on the chemical, biological, physical, and societal hazards that confront children in today's world: pesticides, indoor and outdoor air pollution, lead, arsenic, phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, and the built environment. It presents carefully documented data on rising rates of disease in children, offers a critical summary of new research linking pediatric disease with environmental exposures, and explores the cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying diseases of environmental origin. With this volume's emphasis upon integrating theory and practice, readers will find practical approaches to channeling scientific findings into evidence-based strategies for preventing and identifying the environmental hazards that cause disease in children. It is a landmark work that will serve as the field's benchmark for years to come.



Exposure Analysis

Exposure Analysis Author Wayne R. Ott
ISBN-10 9781420012637
Release 2006-10-26
Pages 533
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Written by experts, Exposure Analysis is the first complete resource in the emerging scientific discipline of exposure analysis. A comprehensive source on the environmental pollutants that affect human health, the book discusses human exposure through pathways including air, food, water, dermal absorption, and, for children, non-food ingestion. The book summarizes existing definitions of exposure, dose, and related concepts and provides the mathematical framework at the heart of these conceptual definitions. Using secondhand smoke as an example, the book illustrates how exposure analysis studies can change human behavior and improve public health. An extensive section on air pollutants considers volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), fine and ultrafine particles, and the latest personal air quality monitors for measuring individual exposure. Another detailed section examines exposures to pesticides, metals such as lead, and dioxin that may occur through multiple routes such as air, food, and dust ingestion. The book explores important aspects of dermal exposure such as the absorption of volatile organic compounds while showering or bathing and exposure through multiple carrier media. The authors describe quantitative methods that have been validated for predicting the concentrations in enclosed everyday locations, such as automobiles and rooms of the home. They also discuss existing laws and examine the relationship between exposure and national policies. Defining the new field of exposure analysis, this book provides the basic tools needed to identify sources, understand causes, measure exposures, and develop strategies for improving public health.



Issues in General Economic Research and Application 2011 Edition

Issues in General Economic Research and Application  2011 Edition Author
ISBN-10 9781464965043
Release 2012-01-09
Pages 873
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Issues in General Economic Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about General Economic Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in General Economic Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about General Economic Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in General Economic Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.



Science for Environmental Protection

Science for Environmental Protection Author Committee on Science for EPA's Future
ISBN-10 9780309264891
Release 2012-11-21
Pages 233
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In anticipation of future environmental science and engineering challenges and technologic advances, EPA asked the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the overall capabilities of the agency to develop, obtain, and use the best available scientific and technologic information and tools to meet persistent, emerging, and future mission challenges and opportunities. Although the committee cannot predict with certainty what new environmental problems EPA will face in the next 10 years or more, it worked to identify some of the common drivers and common characteristics of problems that are likely to occur. Tensions inherent to the structure of EPA's work contribute to the current and persistent challenges faced by the agency, and meeting those challenges will require development of leading-edge scientific methods, tools, and technologies, and a more deliberate approach to systems thinking and interdisciplinary science. Science for Environmental Protection: The Road Ahead outlines a framework for building science for environmental protection in the 21st century and identified key areas where enhanced leadership and capacity can strengthen the agency's abilities to address current and emerging environmental challenges as well as take advantage of new tools and technologies to address them. The foundation of EPA science is strong, but the agency needs to continue to address numerous present and future challenges if it is to maintain its science leadership and meet its expanding mandates.



Environmental Health

Environmental Health Author Howard Frumkin
ISBN-10 9781118984765
Release 2016-02-29
Pages 896
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"Environmental Health: From Global to Local, Third Edition by Howard Frumkin is a comprehensive and contemporary introductory core text for students in public health, preventive medicine, community health, other health sciences, and environmental health. Expert contributors discuss the major issues in environmental health: air, water, food safety, occupational health, radiation, chemical and physical hazards, environmental disasters, vector control, and environmental justice. Major changes to the third edition: - More global focus - New chapter on vulnerable populations, covering children, poor/minority communities, elderly, others - New chapter on sustainability - Shorten most chapters and eliminate redundancies throughout the book - Much more creative, engaging discussion questions "--Provided by publisher.



Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk Related Evaluations

Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk Related Evaluations Author National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN-10 9780309453516
Release 2017-02-16
Pages 200
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Over the last decade, several large-scale United States and international programs have been initiated to incorporate advances in molecular and cellular biology, -omics technologies, analytical methods, bioinformatics, and computational tools and methods into the field of toxicology. Similar efforts are being pursued in the field of exposure science with the goals of obtaining more accurate and complete exposure data on individuals and populations for thousands of chemicals over the lifespan; predicting exposures from use data and chemical-property information; and translating exposures between test systems and humans. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations makes recommendations for integrating new scientific approaches into risk-based evaluations. This study considers the scientific advances that have occurred following the publication of the NRC reports Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy and Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. Given the various ongoing lines of investigation and new data streams that have emerged, this publication proposes how best to integrate and use the emerging results in evaluating chemical risk. Using 21st Century Science to Improve Risk-Related Evaluations considers whether a new paradigm is needed for data validation, how to integrate the divergent data streams, how uncertainty might need to be characterized, and how best to communicate the new approaches so that they are understandable to various stakeholders.



Dust

Dust Author Paul J. Lioy
ISBN-10 1442201509
Release 2009-02-16
Pages 272
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One of the first scientists to take samples from Ground Zero after the destruction of the Twin Towers, Lioy shares his personal and professional perspectives on the World Trade Center dust. What was in the material that rained down after the disintegration of these buildings? Why did officials wrongly choose to focus on the release of asbestos? How did the size of the dust particles influence the development of the World Trade Center Cough among rescue workers and other New Yorkers? When were respirators used on site and what changes should be made to respirator design now? Dust answers these, and many other, questions about the environmental effects, public policy initiatives, health outcomes and scientific findings that played a critical role in the aftermath of September 11th. Beyond providing insightful analysis of what happened then, this book details the significant steps we need to take in order to better prepare for future catastrophes.



A Research Strategy for Environmental Health and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials

A Research Strategy for Environmental  Health  and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials Author Committee to Develop a Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials
ISBN-10 9780309253291
Release 2012-05-23
Pages 211
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The nanotechnology sector, which generated about $225 billion in product sales in 2009, is predicted to expand rapidly over the next decade with the development of new technologies that have new capabilities. The increasing production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may lead to greater exposures of workers, consumers, and the environment, and the unique scale-specific and novel properties of the materials raise questions about their potential effects on human health and the environment. Over the last decade, government agencies, academic institutions, industry, and others have conducted many assessments of the environmental, health, and safety (EHS) aspects of nanotechnology. The results of those efforts have helped to direct research on the EHS aspects of ENMs. However, despite the progress in assessing research needs and despite the research that has been funded and conducted, developers, regulators, and consumers of nanotechnology-enabled products remain uncertain about the types and quantities of nanomaterials in commerce or in development, their possible applications, and their associated risks. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials presents a strategic approach for developing the science and research infrastructure needed to address uncertainties regarding the potential EHS risks of ENMs. The report summarizes the current state of the science and high-priority data gaps on the potential EHS risks posed by ENMs and describes the fundamental tools and approaches needed to pursue an EHS risk research strategy. The report also presents a proposed research agenda, short-term and long-term research priorities, and estimates of needed resources and concludes by focusing on implementation of the research strategy and evaluation of its progress, elements that the committee considered integral to its charge.



Toxicity Pathway Based Risk Assessment

Toxicity Pathway Based Risk Assessment Author Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology
ISBN-10 9780309154222
Release 2010-06-07
Pages 134
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In 2007, the National Research Council envisioned a new paradigm in which biologically important perturbations in key toxicity pathways would be evaluated with new methods in molecular biology, bioinformatics, computational toxicology, and a comprehensive array of in vitro tests based primarily on human biology. Although some considered the vision too optimistic with respect to the promise of the new science, no one can deny that a revolution in toxicity testing is under way. New approaches are being developed, and data are being generated. As a result, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) expects a large influx of data that will need to be evaluated. EPA also is faced with tens of thousands of chemicals on which toxicity information is incomplete and emerging chemicals and substances that will need risk assessment and possible regulation. Therefore, the agency asked the National Research Council to convene a symposium to stimulate discussion on the application of the new approaches and data in risk assessment. The symposium was held on May 11-13, 2009, in Washington, DC, and included presentations and discussion sessions on pathway-based approaches for hazard identification, applications of new approaches to mode-of-action analyses, the challenges to and opportunities for risk assessment in the changing paradigm, and future directions.



Essentials of Environmental Public Health Science

Essentials of Environmental Public Health Science Author Naima Bradley
ISBN-10 9780191505409
Release 2014-01-30
Pages 224
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Environmental public health is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the direct and indirect impact of exposure to environmental hazards on the public's health and wellbeing. Assessing and addressing the risks of chemical, ionising and non-ionising radiation, and noise hazards requires a sound knowledge of toxicology, environmental epidemiology, environmental science, health risk assessment, and public health principles. Essentials of Environmental Science for Public Health provides practical guidance on the technical aspects of environmental and public health investigations. Written by leaders in the field, the authors provide practical, expert advice on a range of topics from key concepts and framework for investigation to contaminated land and waste management. Case studies are used to aid learning and understand of the topics discussed. Produced by Health Protection England, Essentials of Environmental Science for Public Health offers a comprehensive and structured approach to understanding environmental public health issues and will be essential reading for all students and professionals in environmental public health.



Causality

Causality Author Phyllis Illari
ISBN-10 9780191639685
Release 2014-10-02
Pages 336
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Head hits cause brain damage - but not always. Should we ban sport to protect athletes? Exposure to electromagnetic fields is strongly associated with cancer development - does that mean exposure causes cancer? Should we encourage old fashioned communication instead of mobile phones to reduce cancer rates? According to popular wisdom, the Mediterranean diet keeps you healthy. Is this belief scientifically sound? Should public health bodies encourage consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables? Severe financial constraints on research and public policy, media pressure, and public anxiety make such questions of immense current concern not just to philosophers but to scientists, governments, public bodies, and the general public. In the last decade there has been an explosion of theorizing about causality in philosophy, and also in the sciences. This literature is both fascinating and important, but it is involved and highly technical. This makes it inaccessible to many who would like to use it, philosophers and scientists alike. This book is an introduction to philosophy of causality - one that is highly accessible: to scientists unacquainted with philosophy, to philosophers unacquainted with science, and to anyone else lost in the labyrinth of philosophical theories of causality. It presents key philosophical accounts, concepts and methods, using examples from the sciences to show how to apply philosophical debates to scientific problems.



Reactive Nitrogen Species Advances in Research and Application 2011 Edition

Reactive Nitrogen Species  Advances in Research and Application  2011 Edition Author
ISBN-10 9781464923128
Release 2012-01-09
Pages 279
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Reactive Nitrogen Species: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Reactive Nitrogen Species in a concise format. The editors have built Reactive Nitrogen Species: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Reactive Nitrogen Species in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Reactive Nitrogen Species: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.



Trihalomethanes Advances in Research and Application 2011 Edition

Trihalomethanes  Advances in Research and Application  2011 Edition Author
ISBN-10 9781464932182
Release 2012-01-09
Pages 78
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Trihalomethanes: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Trihalomethanes in a concise format. The editors have built Trihalomethanes: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Trihalomethanes in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Trihalomethanes: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.